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Åldersrelaterad makuladegeneration (AMD)

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Sakkunnig:

Definition:
Degeneration av pigmentepitelceller och fotoreceptorer i makulaområdet i retina. Åldersbetingad makulopati, genetiska faktorer, oxidativ stress och UV-ljus predisponerar för tillståndet.
Förekomst:
Prevalens är 2–3 % bland personer >65 år.
Symtom:
Smärtfri och gradvis synförlust. Ofta med förvrängning av synintrycken, lässvårigheter, suddig syn med blinda fläckar och i sen fas centralt skotom.
Kliniska fynd:
Vid fundusundersökning ses i tidigare stadier hyalina drusen som små vita fläckar framförallt kring fovea, senare pigmentförändringar, eventuellt blödningar och ödem.
Diagnostik:
Utredning hos ögonläkare omfattar angiografi med kontrast och OCT (Optical Coherence Tomography).
Behandling:
Ingen behandling vid torr typ, VEGF-behandling vid våt typ.
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  • Fredrik Ghosh, docent och överläkare, Ögonkliniken, Skånes universitetssjukhus

Tidigare sakkunniga

  • Johan H. Seland, professor emeritus, Universitetet i Bergen
  • Knut A. Holtedahl, professor i allmänmedicin, Institutt for samfunnsmedisinske fag, Universitetet i Tromsø