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Epilepsi

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Sakkunnig:


Definition:
Epilepsi innebär en varaktig benägenhet att få oprovocerade epileptiska anfall. Anfallen klassificeras utifrån om det har fokal (begränsar sig till en hjärnhalva) eller generaliserad (involverar bägge hjärnhalvor) start. 
Förekomst:
Prevalensen i Sverige uppskattades till 0,62% år 2005 och 0,88% år 2011, vilket talar för att det finns cirka 88 000 personer med epilepsi i Sverige. Livstidsprevalensen uppges till 3 %, men cirka 70 % av dessa går i remission.
Symtom:
Anfall med generaliserade kramper och akut medvetandeförlust, korta medvetandeförluster utan kramper (absenser), eller fokala symtom utan eller med medvetandeförlust.
Kliniska symtom:
Undersökning utan anfall kan identifiera neurologiska skador, men är ofta normal.
Diagnostik:
Anamnes, blodprover, EEG, MRT hjärna.
Behandling:
Läkemedel i första hand. Kirurgi och andra behandlingsformer kan bli aktuella i vissa fall.
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  • Eva Kumlien, adj professor och överläkare, Neurologkliniken, Akademiska sjukhuset, Uppsala
  • Anna Nager, med dr och specialist i allmänmedicin, Karolinska institutet

Tidigare sakkunniga

  • Peter D. Jost, spesialist i allmennmedisin, redaktør NEL