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Hematemes och melena

Senast uppdaterad: Senast reviderad:
Sakkunnig:

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  2. Barkun AN, Bardou M, Kuipers EJ, et al. International Consensus Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding Conference Group. International consensus recommendations on the management of patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Ann Intern Med 2010; 152: 101-13. Annals of Internal Medicine  
  3. Hussain H, Lapin S, Cappell MS. Clinical scoring systems for determining the prognosis of gastrointestinal bleeding. Gastroenterol Clin North Am 2000; 29: 445-64. PubMed  
  4. Manning-Dimmitt LL, Dimmitt SG. Diagnosis of gastrointestinal bleeding in adults. Am Fam Physician 2005; 71: 1339-46. PubMed  
  5. Peter DJ, Dougherty JM. Evaluation of the patient with gastrointestinal bleeding: an evidence based approach. Emerg Med Clin North Am 1999; 17: 239-61. PubMed  
  6. Adler DG. Assessment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. BMJ Best Practice, last updated June 2018.
  7. Stanley AJ, Ashley D, Dalton HR, et al. Outpatient management of patients with low-risk upper-gastrointestinal haemorrhage: multicentre validation and prospective evaluation. Lancet 2009; 373: 42-7. PubMed  
  8. Yuan Y, Tsoi K, Hunt RH. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and risk of upper GI bleeding: confusion or confounding? Am J Med 2006; 119: 719-27. PubMed  
  9. Barkun AN, Bardou M, Kuipers EJ, et al. International consensus recommendations on the management of patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Ann Intern Med 2010; 152: 101-13. Annals of Internal Medicine  
  10. Hwang JH, Fisher DA, Ben-Menachem T, et al. The role of endoscopy in the management of acute non-variceal upper GI bleeding. Gastrointest Endosc. 2012;75:1132-1138. PubMed  
  11. Palamidessi N, Sinert R, Falzon L, Zehtabchi S. Nasogastric aspiration and lavage in emergency department patients with hematochezia or melena without hematemesis. Acad Emerg Med 2010; 17: 126-32. PubMed  
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  13. Winstead NS, Wilcox CM. Erythromycin prior to endoscopy for acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage: a cost-effectiveness analysis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2007; 26: 1371-7. PubMed  
  14. Sreedharan A, Martin J, Leontiadis GI, et al. Proton pump inhibitor treatment initiated prior to endoscopic diagnosis in upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010; (7): CD005415. Cochrane (DOI)  
  15. Sung JJ, Barkun A, Kuipers EJ, et al.; Peptic Ulcer Bleed Study Group. Intravenous esomeprazole for prevention of recurrent peptic ulcer bleeding: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 2009; 150: 455-64. Annals of Internal Medicine  
  16. Villanueva C, Colomo A, Bosch A, et al. Transfusion strategies for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding. N Engl J Med 2013; 368: 11-21. New England Journal of Medicine  
  17. Garcia-Tsao G, Sanyal AJ, Grace ND, Carey W; Practice Guidelines Committee of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases; Practice Parameters Committee of the American College of Gastroenterology. Prevention and management of gastroesophageal varices and variceal hemorrhage in cirrhosis. Hepatology 2007; 46: 922-38. PubMed  
  18. Gralnek IM, Dumonceau JM, Kuipers EJ, et al. Diagnosis and management of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) guideline. Endoscopy. 2015;47:a1-a46.
  19. Gisbert JP, Khorrami S, Carballo F, Calvet X, Gené E, Dominguez-Munoz JE. H. pylori eradication therapy vs. antisecretory non-eradication therapy (with or without long-term maintenance antisecretory therapy) for the prevention of recurrent bleeding from peptic ulcer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004; (2): CD004062. Cochrane (DOI)  
  20. Rostom A, Dube C, Wells G, et al. Prevention of NSAID-induced gastroduodenal ulcers. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002; (4): CD002296. Cochrane (DOI)  
  • Anna Nager, med dr och specialist i allmänmedicin, Karolinska institutet

Tidigare sakkunniga

  • Henrik Forssell, docent och överläkare, Kirurgkliniken, Blekingesjukhuset, Karlskrona
  • Terje Johannessen, professor i allmennmedisin (NEL)