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Myom i uterus

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Sakkunnig:

Definition:
Benign tumör i uterus som utgår från glatt muskulatur och bindväv.
Förekomst:
Förekomsten ökar med åldern fram till klimakteriet. Myom finns hos en tredjedel av kvinnor i åldern 40−60 år.
Symtom:
Oftast asymtomatiska. Menorragi, smärtor eller trycksymtom, täta miktioner och/eller infertilitet kan förekomma. Akuta smärtor vid nekros eller torsion av myom. Rikliga blödningar orsakas framförallt av submukösa myom, alltså myom som buktar in i uteruskaviteten.
Kliniska fynd:
Palpation av tydligt åtskilda, runda, fasta, multipla och oömma knutor på uterus vid gynekologisk undersökning.
Diagnostik:
Diagnosticeras med vaginalt och abdominellt ultrajud.
Behandling:
Behandlas enbart vid symtom. Hormonspiral eller olika hormonpreparat kan lindra blödningar och minska besvär. Det finns flera olika kirurgiska metoder för att avlägsna myom.
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  • Barbro Larson, docent och specialist i gynekologi och obstetrik, Stockholm
  • Anna Nager, med dr och specialist i allmänmedicin, Karolinska institutet