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Typ 2-diabetes

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Sakkunnig:

Definition:
Typ 2-diabetes är en kronisk metabol sjukdom med många bakomliggande orsaker. Tillståndet karakteriseras av kronisk hyperglykemi med rubbningar i kolhydrat-, fett- och proteinmetabolismen.
Förekomst:
Ungefär 400 000 personer har typ 2-diabetes i Sverige varav merparten behandlas inom primärvården.
Symtom:
De flesta fall av diabetes diagnostiseras genom screening av patienter med riskfaktorer där inga eller få symtom föreligger.
Kliniska fynd:
Oftast finns inga kliniska fynd vid presentation, men med tanke på kardiovaskulär riskskattning bör mätning av längd, vikt, BMI och blodtryck ingå. Även bedömning av andra tecken på aterosklerotisk sjukdom och neuropati ingår.
Diagnostik:
Diagnosen bygger på kriterier baserade på (fastevärden av) glukos och/eller HbA1c. Prediabetes har andra kriterier.
Behandling:
Består av multifaktoriell behandling med icke-farmakologiska åtgärder (riktade på levnadsvanor) och farmakologiska åtgärder för att uppnå glykemisk kontroll och minimalisera andra riskfaktorer såsom förhöjt blodtryck och förhöjda blodfetter.
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  • Stefan Jansson, med dr och specialist i allmänmedicin, Brickebackens vårdcentral Örebro, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Universitetssjukvårdens forskningscentrum, Örebro Universitet
  • Remy Waardenburg, specialist i allmänmedicin, Stockholm