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Allergisk rinit, allergisk rinokonjunktivit

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Definition:
Atopisk övre luftvägsinflammation orsakad av specifika allergener.
Förekomst:
Vanligt. Bland europeiska barn och ungdomar uppskattas prevalensen till 10-20%.
Symtom:
Klåda i näsan och ofta i ögon, nästäppa, rinnsnuva, nysning.
Kliniska fynd:
Ofta bilateral konjunktivit.
Diagnostik:
Anamnesen är ofta typisk för allergisk rinokonjunktivit men kan vid behov kompletteras med pricktest eller specifikt IgE-test.
Behandling:
Undvikande av allergen. Förstahandsval vid läkemedelsbehandling är nasala steroider, med perorala eller nasala antihistaminer som alternativ. Vid otillräcklig effekt av ovanstående kan allergenspecifik immunterapi (AIT) ges under 3 år som subkutan injektion (björk-, hassel- och alpollenantigen, gräspollen, katthår, hundhår, hästepitel och husdammskvalster) eller som daglig tablett (gräspollen, björkhomologa trädpollen och husdammskvalster).
  • Anna Nager, med dr och specialist i allmänmedicin, Karolinska institutet
  • Morgan Andersson, docent och överläkare, Öron-, näs- och halskliniken, Skånes universitetssjukhus
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